Military Grid Reference System (MGRS)

Some basics tips on how to navigate using the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS), a compass, and a protractor.

Tip on Navigating using the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) by: Some basics tips on how to navigate using the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS), a compass, and a protractor.


New medical tool

Adjustable Oral Airways

For years we have watched clinicians struggle with the traditional airways. Many have stopped utilizing them altogether. We, at NuZone Medical, following American Heart Association (AHA) recommendations, felt that it was time for a new airway. One you could actually work with! We observed the current airways to be difficult to size correctly and insert; thus, making them uncomfortable for the patient. Plus, they do not allow for an easy airway clearance. In addition, if the patient’s Level of Consciousness (LOC) improves, the traditional airways stimulate a gag reflex, which makes it necessary to remove the airway with a potential for reinsertion if a need arises. The Dual-Air® Adjustable Oral Airway provides solutions to many of the above mentioned situations. This adjustable airway is pretty awesome for the field medic. We will be doing some more testing this year but after seeing this at the conference i just wanted to share it with all of you. Crisis Application Group Ready-Sure-Secure #JedburghTargets

Fire basics and tips (Video)

#Survival Jason explains a few tips on fire basics. Don't take it for granted, that you'll be able to start a fire in inclement weather! #BeReady Jason is a Junior instructor here at CAGmain and is a life long Boy Scout... #Survival Jason explains a few tips on fire basics. Don't take it for granted, that you'll be able to start a fire in inclement weather! #BeReady Jason is a Junior instructor here at CAGmain and is a life long Boy Scout...

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Discussion guide to Airways

Anytime we talk about austere medicine, naturally airways come up, and for a variety of reasons. Just to catch up our audience we are going to cover a few basics, so everyone is on the same sheet of music. In this article we wont cover how and when to use a particular airway, but we rather discuss the intended use to hopefully clarify what item does what.

Anytime we talk about austere medicine, naturally airways come up, and for a variety of reasons. Just to catch up our audience we are going to cover a few basics, so everyone is on the same sheet of music. In this article we wont cover how and when to use a particular airway, but we rather discuss the intended use to hopefully clarify what item does what.

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Positional Airways. These are free, weigh nothing and often overlooked for sexier, more invasive techniques. A positional airway is exactly what it sounds like, position the patients airway or body in a way that keeps the tongue off the back of the throat, or prevents them from inhaling vomit. i.e. The sniffing position, or roll you patient onto their side AKA the "Frat Boy" or recovery position.


Adjunct airways. Adjunct airways are temporary airways, that we put in place just to buy us a little time until we can do something a little more definitive. Although in many cases they are all that is needed or ever get used, they fall into the adjunct category simply because better airways are available to skilled providers.

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NPAs or nasal pharyngeal airways. The correct term is NPA but its ok if you call it a nasal trumpet. An NPA is designed to go thru the nasal passage and sit just behind the tongue and keep your patients airway open, essentially keep them from snoring. In order for these to work they have to be sized correctly for the patient before placement. Make sure you keep a variety of sizes handy, I see in training people who just go thru the motions of sizing them up..... These are uncomfortable for the patient but should avoid the gag reflex.


OPAs or Oral Pharyngeal airways. The correct term is OPA but if you want to call them a J-Tube that's fine as well. OPAs are large, smooth J shaped pipes are bridges that go thru the mouth and lift the tongue off the back of the throat. This will stimulate a gag reflex and they also fall out a easier than an NPA. Its for that reason NPAs tend to be the go to adjunct airway in the field. OPAs will pass more air in most cases, so EMS folks tend to prefer the OPA because it fits in a little better with other treatments they may do later as a provider. [gallery size="medium" link="none" orderby="rand" ids="2543,2542,2544"] Supraglottic Airways (Above the glottis AKA the air flap). I tend to categorize Supraglottic airways between an adjunct and a definitive airway like intubation or crics (we will explain). These airways are designed to go "Blindly" into the back of the throat and isolate the OPENING of the trachea, by either blocking off the esophagus, as in the case of the King Lt. or by chance actually landing in the trachea proper by chance as in the case of a Combitube which does both depending on where it lands.

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Supraglottic airways are procedurally easier than crics and intubation, but are still not considered definitve by most because they do NOT isolate the trachea. The right Supraglottic airway works well enough for anesthesia so they have the chops to save lives, but tend to be priced out the everyday persons IFAK. I like the KING LT by North American Rescue, its as close to Infantry proof as you can get while giving you operating room level performance. [gallery ids="2545,2546,2547" orderby="rand"] Definitive Airways. The goal of most providers is to isolate the trachea, this increases the effectiveness of any treatments they provide and reduces the risk of vomit or any other nasty's getting into the airway. If you ever get to watch an ER run a "mega code", you will notice a sigh of relief once the patient is "tubed" Surgical Airways. This is the first of two definitive airways we will discuss in this article. I've placed these just above the supraglottics, but frankly they are a teachable skill to the laymen provider. I've taught many an operator how to cric, and they have performed the procedure well. The only surgical airway we are concerned about in the field is the CricoThyroidotomy, or "Cric". With out getting into specifics you go in thru a small incision at the base of the Adams apple and slide a tube INTO the trachea. the tube should have an inflatable cuff on the end, so that when you inflate the cuff, gas must pass in and out the tube alone, and fluids cant get into the lungs. This technique bypasses the gag reflex altogether and is a great option for providers dealing with a potentially ugly airway combined with a head injury or disembowelment. This procedure is generally considered safe, im a fan of teaching it to dedicated responders but ill leave that discussion to people with letters behind their name. [gallery size="medium" ids="2548,2549"] Intubation. The gold standard for airways. Using a specialized scope and a properly sized cuffed tube, the provider slides a ET (Endotracheal) Tube directly into the trachea, and when they inflate the cuff they isolate the trachea the same as the cric we mentioned before. This requires a great amount of technique and experience, even seasoned paramedics dread having to do this in the field. A lot can go wrong and we certainly wouldn't recommend this to a laymen. Its good to know about this procedure even if you cant "tube" someone yourself. Ultimately this is where you patient is going if his level of consciousness allows it. This skill is generally for paramedic level providers and above and for good reason. It is entirely possible to use a modified version of this procedure and go thru the nose, but again it requires some skill and clinical hours to learn. [gallery columns="4" ids="2550,2551,2552,2553" orderby="rand"] Certainly there are a myriad of factors that will guide your decision on what to use and when, but that's not for this article. Consider:

  • Pediatrics
  • Individual anatomy
  • Spinal Injuries
  • Head injuries
  • Mass casualties scenarios

In the CAG tier 1 Med Kit we have a variety of positional airways and an NPA. Keep in mind the key to good airway management is a rock solid assessment. Here at Crisis Application Group we teach MARCH (The science is in the sequence) using what ever airway exam your competent in. and make sure to slow down for at least 5 seconds when look listen and feel. Of course if you have any questions hit us up on Facebook and as always thank you. [caption id="attachment_2314" align="aligncenter" width="654"]cagnet GREEN BERET MODERATED FORUM[/caption]


Running CACHE Networks

Caches are prepositioned resources put in place to support a future activity. Classically we "visualize" them as buried treasure but they don't have to be buried, and we will cover that a little later in this article

Shady stuff in the hills

What is a cache? Caches are prepositioned resources put in place to support a future activity. Classically we "visualize" them as buried treasure but they don't have to be buried, and we will cover that a little later in this article. Having been to a Special Forces school for this, I'm happy to say this subject is one of my favorites and an area that I have plenty of real world experience. The challenge of this article will be keeping it unclassified, so if there seems to be a "gap" in the flow of the article, accept my apologies up front I'm trying to make everyone happy... Caches have been used for centuries, there's nothing new about them but in todays fast paced disposable world they are usually overlooked as lacking imagination or to time consuming. Of course the big army (or military) as a whole doesn't really use caches, but a cache system doesn't make sense for our modern army. They come complete with supply trains and never really know where the next operation will take place. They are designed for mobility. You however are not.

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You KNOW where you will be staying, working and traveling. A cache network would fit easily into the busiest modern schedule and as we will discuss lighten your bug out loads considerably. Caches are the difference between a 100lbs Bog out Bag (BoB) and a 20lbs BoB. Use caches to offset your emergency weight and have enough that you can afford to lose a few to the elements. Caching is a process not a singular event. Why use them? DSC_0114Caches will drastically offset the amount of weight and equipment required to get from A to B on any map. If established correctly, you could have a cache set up at all of your major check points and if you don't need to contents of the cache, bypass it and save it for later. If you have ever wondered how commandos get away with traveling so light, its because we aren't just moving to a safe area I'm admitting we are cheating, and picking up food and ammo along the way that someone else buried before hand. Like a magician, the trick isn't magic, its the assistant who skillfully positions the tools needed ahead of time when no one was looking.

[gallery type="rectangular" orderby="rand" ids="2365,2366,2367,2368"] Site selection criteria. Its not good enough to just pick a gnarly oak tree and have at it. In theory you should have dozens of these located all over the place so site selection criteria has to take on a consistent, and more primary role as you develop your network. Consider:

  • 24 hour all weather access
  • Enough cover and concealment to hide loading and unloading of the cache
  • You must have access to the site, and avoid places like banks daycare or municipal buildings that will draw unwanted attention (or security footage) of your activities. There's nothing illegal about caches, but it doesn't look good hiding in the bushes of a children's park.....
  • Will it develop? Will your cache be a burger king next year?
  • Anchor points. If the cache site proper doesn't have good visual markers it may make sense to identify a reference point nearby. For instance, 3 yards due north of the North East road sign at the intersection of Mayberry and main St.
  • Anchor stakes. It may not make sense to map directly to a cache, if that's the case map to a tent stake with a string leading you to the buried goods. Experiment with different methods.
  • Always consider that SOMEONE ELSE will have to service the cache. Don't assume you will be the one who is unloading the goods. What if you're hurt? or busy saving lives? Don't assume the tree you picked is unique enough for a stranger who has never been there to pick out of the crowd.

Types of caches. I like to build caches based on themes so that's what ill discuss in this article. Most of my caches are simple food and water 24 hour kits, small and easy to hide. I have 1 large cache, that remains unmarked and only I know where it is that contains everything I need to start over... I bury this early and let it season in the elements. Consider:

  • Support cache. Food, water, clothing and medical supplies.
  • Action Caches: Ammunition and "other" supplies, just in case I get disarmed.
  • Recovery cache: Important documents, cash, food, water, ammo, perhaps a weapon, family pics you name it. If your house burned down right now, what would you need?

You can build and camouflage caches out of anything, you're limited only by your imagination. Just make sure they are double weathered sealed. Consider using packing grease when storing working "metal" parts for long periods of time and using metal containers for water. Metal containers don't leak into the water like plastic bottles do. How to organize them into usable networks. Its all about the mapping. I break my mapping down into useable blocks that are easy for family members to follow and understand. There are 3, maybe 4 basic sketches you need to learn:

  1. Macro Sketch. Think state with multiple ports of entry like airports or interstate intersections. This way my cousin Earl can drive in and find his way around.
  2. Navigator Sketch. Now that Earl has his bearing from the macro sketch, its time to get him to the area where the cache is. This is the street map level sketch that references the major ports of entry from the previous sketch, BUT gets you to the road intersection where the actual cache is located. Google maps works well here, and several navigator sketches can be support by a single Macro sketch.
  3. Micro Sketch. Now that Earl is at the right intersection, he needs to know exactly where to dig. This sketch should have the precise pace count and reference points required to walk right up to the cache and it should also include any pertinent details the user needs to know: Police station near by, bring a shovel, service between this hour and that, etc....
  4. Point of view (POV) sketch. In some cases a site may require a perspective as if seen from the person performing the task, this is the case when the person loading and unloading the cache is face with multiple but similar choices in a given are. For instance multiple paths or multiple telephone pole. It doesn't hurt to include one in every report, but frankly they aren't needed unless you gauge the circumstances to warrant the work.

Here's an organization example of how I set up my cache mapping:

  • Macro (2GA1FEB2015)
    • Navigator Bug out (Husbands work and home)
      • Micro (Support) GA323-01
      • Micro (Support) GA323-02
      • Micro (action) GA323-01a
        • with POV
      • Micro (Recovery) no mapping
    • Navigator Bug out (Wife's work and home)
      • Micro (Support) GA324-01
      • Micro (Support) GA324-02
      • Micro (Support) GA324-03

I would keep all of these in a book and even supplement the data with a Google earth maps overlay. Ideally when I forward a cache I want the information as simplified as possible yet accurate. This way in a pinch I could simply "text" it to someone and send them on their way.

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Under this organization I can group my caches and maps into zones, and maintain an underground supply network that supports multiple family members in different locations, perhaps a child in college and so on. [gallery columns="2" size="medium" type="rectangular" ids="2353,2355"]


Mapping is the trickiest part of all of this. Caches are aren't any good if YOU are the only one who can use them. But for OPSEC or data reasons you may not have access to accurate enough mapping to make this work. So make your own! [gallery type="rectangular" ids="2360,2361,2362"] The trick to this is finding the right amount of detail with out over crowding your work. Practice this amongst your own group to see what I mean. Have one person draw a map to an unknown location, and another person navigate to it with out any assistance. Then you will see how your assumption over the obviousness of a particular reference point may not be as obvious as you previously thought. There is an art to it and it must be learned and rehearsed. We wont go to far into mapping in this article, its an article all its own but we will write it up as an addition to this cache piece.

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Of course here at CAGmain we offer a wide variety of classes and that includes how to cache. Caching is a hybrid of field craft, administration and art its not just bury MREs in the woods for a rainy day. Play with Geocaching and get a feel for the venue and see what other folks have done. Its fun and family oriented I think you'll like it. Click this link to learn more! As always thank you, and please ask questions!



Standards: The tourniquet discussion

In the medical world, every lifesaving item you select to go into your aid bag is a critical piece of gear and should be viewed as a NO FAIL item, after all lives are actually at stake. When introducing a new medical product into the market, a professional should have the research and data readily available to back up their claims for said product. The basis of this article is about standards and maybe highlight some of the gimmicks that have been floated around to make a quick buck. Medical standards are critical with tourniquets (TQ) and their effectiveness because of the competitive history between military and civilian trauma models. As a former Special Missions medic who served as a voting member of the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care (CoTCCC), the subject of tourniquets is very near and dear to me. Standards are essential and this article will discuss what the standard isn't and can’t be, what the standard looks like, how standards are achieved, followed by an example of what to look for when making tough decisions with your limited budget.

Full disclosure: We sell the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT)

What the Standard Isn't

When shopping for gear, we often look to industry leaders as they have the credibility and experience to make recommendations for the inexperienced or new. But how is that credibility achieved? It’s the proven history of having done the hard work up front and having the documentation to show for it. If the only selection criteria someone has is how cool or "operator" a guy is there's going to be mistakes, and the medical world is no different. Consumers make the obvious assumption that due diligence has been made by the professionals in question. This isn't always the case, so its important to do some homework. Pulse oximetry is nowhere near the performance standard for a TQ. There are heart patients with no Pulse ox readings in some tourniquets!

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Marketing IS NOT data. "Cool guy Johnny" used "product XYZ" is NOT data. It validates their experience but offers no quantifiable performance metric. Just because an operator designs and uses it doesn't mean it works, or will work for you. Where is the data collection, the peer reviewed studies, and the study comparisons? Simply put, “Tacticool” is not a standard. Often times, operators are only using a particular device, because this research was ALREADY conducted... When introducing a new device, just saying a Green Beret, Ranger or Navy SEAL used it isn't enough, nor should it be because the lives of our family friends and peers are on the line.

The fact is, a good medic can make bad gear work in a pinch!

But that level of anecdotal evidence shouldn't be confused with a product that will perform at the lowest common denominator.

What the Standard Looks Like

Larry Vickers of Vickers (Corrected from Viking) Tactical routinely presents, in an educational format, the quality of his content and validates what he teaches and why his product concepts work. He provides quantifiable data and demonstrations that support his methodology. Although his tactical experience is relevant, Mr. Vickers has created an virtual encyclopedia of content and data for his approach to tactical shooting and product development. He puts in the work and validates it without relying on “Tacticool” for credibility. He is “Tacticool” because he IS credible.

C.A.G. using Ultrasound with a CAT TQ

C.A.G. using Ultrasound with a CAT TQ

For a tourniquet, the accepted standard for performance is a Doppler study and in some cases, the ultrasound. It’s the only way we can ensure that the device has achieved total arterial occlusion, also known as stopping the blood flow. This test needs to be performed on a human thigh, due to the large amounts of tissue and pressure required to achieve end state. Basically, we need to see if a tourniquet on the upper thigh is strong enough to cut off blood flow all the way down in the foot. Arms are, generally speaking, easy to do and shouldn't be the comparative standard for use in the field. A tourniquet must work on both the legs and arms if it’s going to make it into an aid bag. There are a few other variables we also need to consider such as TQ width, ease of application and design but none of those mean anything if at the end of the day the TQ doesn't stop a major femoral bleed.


There is no question that a skilled provider can create an improvised TQ that meets all of these criteria and will perform when the moment of truth has arrived, but the conventional homemade TQ doesn't offer the market a PREDICTABLE standard in which to train, compare, plan and gather data. Manufactured TQs provide standardization and the ability to teach down to the lowest common denominator so that critical life savings skills can be decentralized into the hands of untrained providers.

Dr. Zeitlow reviewed the prehospital use of tourniquets (CAT Tourniquets used on 73 patients with 98% success) and Combat Gauze (used on 52 patients with a 95% success rate) in the Trauma Service at the Mayo Clinic. He added that "improvised tourniquets were uniformly unsuccessful." Dr. Zeitlow also noted that the Mayo protocol calls for Combat Gauze to be used only after failure of standard gauze. There are 2 CAT tourniquets and 2 Combat Gauzes on each prehospital vehicle or aircraft. -CoTCCC minutes 2014-

When building up to human studies you often see a lot of testing done with non-human models, for example live tissue and even mannequin or cadaver tests. Again, still not the gold standard even though it seems they are validating the product. This is important to understand because there has been a release of various test data comparing the Rapid Application Tourniquet System (RATs) TQ against the CAT TQ on a mannequin. While the findings are indeed in favor of the RATs, this data in no way undermines the value and performance of the CAT nor does it provide gold standard test results for the performance of the RATs.

The CoTCCCs Role in Todays Accepted Standards

It needs to be said that few groups of people have done more to save the lives of American Service members than the CoTCCC. They have a well-documented, battle proven track record of medical excellence. The CoTCCC are directly responsible for the current level of professional respect the military and special operations currently enjoys in the medical community nationwide, better yet, GLOBALLY. In the last few days I've read a lot of attacks on the CoTCCC in favor of fads, and it reflects poorly on the veteran community as a whole.

tccclogoMost active duty service members aren't aware of the CoTCCC because they have only been exposed to the intellectual product that they have been provided, loosely called TCCC. For active duty service members TCCC and CoTCCC are indistinguishable because it’s only in the civilian market where there is a new difference in the meaning. I’m not going to get into who did what and for what trademark, just know that if you have to play "six degrees of separation" to substantiate your TCCC claim, it’s misleading. My personal synopsis of the labeling issue is that the product was marketed and released before it was fully tested. In most cases that's ok because sales feedback is critical, but not in the medical world. A medical device will be in court and on trial the first time it fails. This has a huge potential to damage the credibility of the military medical model. It’s not a popularity contest, it is life and death so standards must be achieved and then maintained.

The RATs TQ displays the big red label associated with TCCC. This is misleading but I don't entirely put the blame on the RATs team, rather the company that markets the label. I know what it takes to get a medical device up and running and, thanks to regulation, it’s nearly impossible. The temptation to cut corners is too great to put the blame entirely on the makers of the RATs. Competing in a market dominated by the FDA is a challenge to all medicine and not just veteran owned companies.

Combat Gauze at shop CAG!

Whether it works or not is irrelevant to the fact that professional credibility has been entirely undermined by this marketing tactic. Moving forward, how are we to accept the validity of any research done in support of the RATs? A veteran owned business is not removed from the challenges of competing in a free market, and that means creating content and products that withstand scrutiny and criticism, beyond the standards of a civilian company. The established civilian market doesn't want to compete with us, they want us to falter. We have the experience to back up our ideas so veterans don't have to dabble in conjecture. There is an entire community of civilians looking to undercut the military medical model, especially in trauma, and its gimmicks like this that will feed their machine. Credibility is king. I want to be clear, I'm not shooting down the efficacy of the RATs TQ, but I see nothing that demonstrates proven performance. At first glance it appears to be a glorified rehash of the old surgical tubing and it looks like a lot of other designs that have come and gone in the last few years. I’d like to see the testing, I'd like to see results. If it turns out to be the next big thing then great, good for them. At the end of the day I wish them luck, but it looks like the cart is ahead of the horse. What Should You Be Looking For? That depends on what kind of market you're in. The war has been going on for 15 years, so it’s not that there isn't room for innovation but there isn't any need to take chances either. The data is out there to substantiate the extra dollars on a limited personal budget. The question is how bad do you want to save $15?  As I've mentioned from the onset of this article, we sell the CAT tourniquet and for good reason. I have personally used them so I'm happy to endorse them, but the CAT has a long standing, well documented history of saving lives. As recently as last year, the Mayo clinic is reporting upwards of a 98% success rate for properly applied CAT TQs in a pre hospital setting. Ill accept that standard for my family.

Combat Application Tourniquet at shop CAG

It is one of the industry dominating products because the data is out there to validate the few extra dollars it costs to buy one. Take a look and see, then ask yourself, does your tourniquet have any real results behind it? The CAT does and we've provided it below.


Medicine is an established industry with proven practices and standards that have been set for years because they have the proof that this approach works. Few markets have the same level of scrutiny as the medical and medical malpractice industry. Even Special Operations follows and acknowledges this fact, and it’s this approach to research and development that has established the SOF community as a credible research and development institution. We have to be careful as a community not to overlook quality standards in favor of the cool factor. Our company, Crisis Application Group Inc. (CAG) won’t be testing the RATS TQ. At the end of the day it’s the responsibility of the manufacturer to prove the validity of their product, not the job of competitors to disprove it. Our initial impression of the RATs TQ is so what, show me the data. We won’t be going down the "rabbit hole" of will it work or why it works, or doesn't. That's not to say it won't, it’s just that we aren't buying into the “Tacticool” marketing. Maybe one day the RATs will be ready for the big leagues, but so far it’s not and there's a lot of work ahead of them. CAG will stick to proven methodology, technology, and personal experiences.


Open source data: Combat Application Tourniquet cotccc-meeting-minutes-1402-final 030. CAT_Single-Routing_ 024. Final_tourniquet_working_group_minutes_march_2010 Chpt 8-Pg 91 023.1 TK CALL AAR_Jul-09 rebuttal to Johnson 026. The Military Emergency Tourniquet Program's lessons Learned with Devices and Designs - 2011 027. Tourniquets - 2011 029. Re-Evaluating the Field Tourniquet for the Canadian Forces 032. Israeli NSW Feedback_to _the_Field_(FT2F) #11 FT2F #12 - TQ Use in OEF OIF and OND - 16Jul12 022. Battle Casualty Survival with Emergency Tourniquet Use to Stop Bleeding - 2009

General TQ studies (Good reading) 009. Surgical Tourniquet Technology Adapted for Military and Prehospital Use - 2004 010. Laboratory Evaluation of Battlefield Tourniquets in Human Volunteers - 2005



Every Day Carry (EDC) Tourniquets: What you may need if you have to draw your firearm

"Medical and trauma emergencies are the most likely crisis that you and your family will face in any emergency. If we look at the all the recent catastrophes faced by our great nation one thing stands out as the most experienced event; TRAUMA. It doesn't matter if it’s a chainsaw accident, tornado or a gunshot wound. Life happens and you need to have the right gear. "

  A firearm is the first object that comes to mind when an EDC or "Every Day Carry" list is mentioned. While I've seen card sized items and flashlights commonly added to most EDC's since then, there's a vital piece missing. We can agree that our EDC, especially our firearm, is to get through an emergency and protect ourselves and others...  But what if that does not go as planned?

Tourniquets came in useful for civilians during the Boston Bombing
The Boston Bombing: A testament of the effectiveness of tourniquets outside of the battlefield, as well.

In a situation where firearms or other weapons involved, the optimal end result is that the threat is taken down, good guy escapes unharmed. Unfortunately, you and I both know that with the nature of ballistics and a high adrenaline moment of stress, that this may not be the case.   Even if you have to remove your weapon from the holster, you or your loved one may be harmed in the process eliminating the threat, or you may even have shot a bystander in the process. Unless a paramedic is thirty feet away, that person may very well bleed out long before medical attention arrives. That's where your EDC Tourniquet comes along.


  Extremity (Arm or Leg) bleeding is the number one preventable cause of death in Trauma Situations, which means this situation is not to be taken lightly. A tourniquet applied properly may save a life in this instance. It's better to use one,  than hesitate and risk exsanguination or "bleeding out." The days of "Don't put it on or you'll lose that limb" are over, studies show that it will take 4-6 hours before permanent damage even begins.  Whether 911 is coming in 15 minutes or you are in an austere situation where help may be delayed or you may have to self-transport, none of that matters if they don't make it through these next few minutes. The decision is clear: Acting now or bleed out on the spot.   That's why I recommend a tourniquet being added to your EDC. Even if you don't carry a firearm daily, Medical injuries are far more likely in an emergency or austere environment than having to draw a firearm. That is why we're going to go over how to use a tourniquet and how to store them. We've already established types of tourniquets so you may make an educated purchase in another guide: Crisis Application Group: C.A.T's eat R.A.T's: Tourniquet Comparisons (CLICK HERE)

Self Aid is a critical skill
Self Aid is a critical skill  

If you can visualize a hole leaking water from a watering hose as the arterial bleeding and the faucet the hose is attached to as the victim's heart, you can know "Why" you're doing it:  the application of the tourniquet is basically you going farther up the hose (artery) to stop water (blood) from coming out. You may waste precious seconds with bandages and direct pressure hoping that fixes the wound. While those methods may be used to slow bleeding, you are going for arterial occlusion meaning the bright red bleeding stops.  "Twist, Twist, Twist the Windlass till the bright red bleeding stops." "Where do I put this thing?"   The CAT and SOFT-T only seem bulky but with a little folding you can make it's silhouette smaller. Personally, I carry at CAT tourniquet on me everywhere I go, and have at least 2 more in the car at all times. That's not even mentioning my medical supplies.

Buy the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT)

A1   I recommend putting it on your belt, however this is not gospel and your imagination is the limit; You can use pockets, ankle holsters or truly conceal it under a shirt by looping it like a bandolier. With the belt method, you can loop the tourniquet through the belt as shown, using the velcro to your advantage.

  If you're worried about a tourniquet attracting attention on a belt, you can pull a shirt or jacket over it, just as with a pistol but with less chance and worry of imprinting. If you can't get it stable enough, try using thick rubber bands to tie it into the belt. If you still can't get it working or need a more durable container for extended wear and abuse, there are a variety of tourniquet holders that are commercially available that are smooth and keep it in good condition.




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